¿Influye la intensidad de los estímulos sexuales y el feminismo en las actitudes de los consumidores hacia las apelaciones sexuales y el juicio ético? Una perspectiva ecuatoriana

Maria Dolores Brito Rhor, Beatriz Rodríguez Herráez, Grace P. Chachalo Carvajal


El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar si la actitud hacia el pensamiento feminista, en un contexto cultural latino, influía en la actitud hacia diferentes anuncios publicitarios que utilizaban apelaciones sexuales hacia el cuerpo de la mujer. Este estudio tomó como base teórica las investigaciones realizadas por Hojoon Choi, Kyunga Yoo, Tom Reichert y Michael LaTour (2016). Se mostraron 4 avisos publicitarios con varios tipos de apelaciones sexuales: desnudez completa, semi-desnudez, nada de desnudez y sexismo hostil. Los resultados arrojados muestran que la media de la actitud feminista (M=3.52, SD=0.82) se encuentra de regular a buena y existe una diferencia significativa entre hombres (M=3.38, SD=0.87) y mujeres (M=3.64, SD=0.77). Las mujeres muestran levemente una actitud más feminista que la de los hombres. En cuanto a las actitudes ante los anuncios publicitarios con diferentes tipos de contenido sexual, se evidenció que existía una diferencia significativa de las medias sobre la actitud ética hacia los mismos. Mientras mayor grado de desnudez se utilizaba en el anuncio, la actitud ética era más negativa. Además, la media del juicio ético sobre el anuncio con “sexismo hostil” fue significativamente diferente al anuncio con semi-desnudez y desnudez completa. De los cuatro anuncios se pudo encontrar una diferencia significativa entre la actitud feminista y la actitud ética hacia el anuncio que contenía imágenes de sexismo hostil. El grupo con un alto grado de feminismo tenía una actitud ética más negativa hacia el anuncio con sexismo hostil (M=3.81, SD=1.69) comparado con el grupo de bajo grado de feminismo (M=4.19, SD=1.40).

Palabras clave

actitud; anuncio; desnudez; juicio ético; pensamiento feminista; publicidad sexual; sexismo hostil

Texto completo:

PDF PDF (English)


Alexander, M., & Judd, B. (1986). Differences in attitudes toward nudity in advertising. Psychology: A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 23(1), 26-29. doi: EJ338629

Andersen, B. L., & Cyranowski, J. M. (1994). Women’s sexual self-schema. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1079–1100. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.67.6.1079

Arrow, M. (2007). “It has become my personal anthem” “I am woman”. Popular culture and 1970s feminism. Australian Feminist Studies, 22(53), 213-30.

doi: 10.1080/08164640701361774

Baker, M., & Churchill, A. (1977). The Impact of Physically Attractive Models

on Advertising Evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(4), 538-555.

doi: 10.2307/3151194

Baumgardner, J., & Richards, A. (2010). Manifesta: Young women, feminism, and the future. New York , NY: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

Bay-Cheng, L., & Zucker, A. (2007). Feminism between the sheets: Sexual attitudes among feminists, nonfeminists, and egalitarians. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 31(2). 157-163. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00349.x

Beasley, C. (1999). What is feminism? An introduction to feminist theory. London: Sage.

Belch, G., Belch, M., & Villareal, A. (1987). Effects of advertising communications: Review of research. Research in Marketing, 9, 59 - 117.

Biswas, A.; Olsen, J., & Carlet, V. (1992). A comparison of print advertisements

from the United States and France. Journal of Advertising, 21(4), 73-81.


Bochner, S. (1994). Cross culture differences in self-concept: A test of Hoftede´s individualis/collectivism distinction. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 25(2), 273-283. doi: 10.1177/0022022194252007

Chaiken, S. (1972). Communicator Physical Attractiveness and Persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(8), 1387-1397. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.8.1387

Cheung, M.; Chan, A., & Han, Y. (2013). Differential effects of Chinese women´s sexuality self-schema on responses to sex appeal in advertising. Journal of Promotion Management, 19(3), 373-391. doi: 10.1080/10496491.2013.787382

Choi, H.; Yoo, K., Reichert, T., & LaTour, M. S. (2016). Do feminists still respond negatively to female nudity in advertising? Investigating the influence of feminist attitudes on reactions to sexual appeals. International Journal of Advertising, 35 (5), 823-845. doi: 10.1080/02650487.2016.1151851

Courtney, A., & Whipple, T. (1983). Sex stereotyping and advertising. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Curtin, N.; Ward, M.; Merriwether, A., & Caruthers, A. (2011). Femininity ideology and sexual health in young women: A focus on sexual knowledge,

embodiment, and agency. International Journal of Sexual Health, 23(1), 48-62. doi: 10.1080/19317611.2010.524694

England, P., & Gardner, T. (1983). Sex differentiation in magazine advertisements: A content analysis using log-linear modeling. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 6(1), 253- 268. doi: 10.1080/01633392.1983.10505342

Fassinger, R. E. (1994). Development and Testing of the Attitudes Toward Feminism and the Women’s Movement (FWM) Scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18(3), 389–402. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1994.tb00462.x

Freedman, E. (2003). No turning back: The history of feminism and the future of women. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Garcia, E., & Yang, K. (2006). Consumer responses to sexual appeals in cross-cultural advertisements. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 19(2), 29-52. doi: 10.1300/J046v19n02_03

Gill, R., & Arthurs, J. (2006). Editors’ introduction: New femininities? Feminist Media Studies, 6(4), 443-451. doi: 10.1080/14680770600989855

Goodrum, C., & Dalrymple, H. (1990). Advertising in America: The First Two Hundred Year. New York: Harry N Abrams Inc.

Gould, S. (1994). Sexuality and ethics in advertising: A framework and research agenda. Journal of Advertising, 23(3), 73-80. doi: 10.1080/00913367.1994.10673452

Hall, C., & Crum, M. (1994). Women and “Body-isms” in television beer commercials. Sex Roles, 31(329). doi: 10.1007/BF01544592

Hawkesworth, M. (2006). Globalization and feminist activism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Holt, D., & Cameron, D. (2010). Cultural strategy: Using innovative ideologies to build break-through brands. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Horai, J., Naccari, N., & Fatoullah, E. (1974). The Effects of Expertise and Physical Attractiveness on Liking, Sociometry, 37(4), 601-606. doi: 10.2307/2786431

Horton, R., Lieb, L., & Hewitt, M. (1982). The effects of nudity. suggestiveness and attractiveness on product class and name recall. En R. Horton, L. Lieb, & M. Hewitt, Developments in marketing science. p.p 456-9. Nacogdoches, TX: Academy of Marketing Science.

Huang, M. (2004). Romantic love and sex: Their relationship and impacts on ad attitudes. Psychology & Marketing, 21, 53-73. doi: 10.1002/mar.10115

Humm, M. (1995). The dictionary of feminist theory. Columbus, OH: Ohio Statae University Press.

Joseph, W. (1982). The Credibility of Physically Attractive Communicators: A Review. Journal of Advertising, 11(3), 15-24. doi: 10.1080/00913367.1982.10672807

Krolokke, C., & Sorensen, A. (2005). Gender communication theories and analysis: From silence to performance. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Labi, N. (1998). Feminism: Girl Power. Time 151, 25, 60-2.

LaTour, M. (1990). Female nudity in print advertising: An analysis of gender differences in arousal and AD response. Psychology & Marketing, 7, 65-81.

doi: 10.1002/mar.4220070106

LaTour, M., & Henthorne, T. (1994). Ethical judments of sexual appeals in print advertising. Journal of Advertising, 23(3), 81-90.

doi: 10.1080/00913367.1994.10673453

Maciejewski, J. (2004). Is the use of sexual and fear appeals ethical? A moral evaluationby generation Y college students. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 26(2), 97-105. doi: 10.1080/10641734.2004.10505167

MacInnis, D.; Moorman, C., & Jaworski, B. (1991). Enhacing and measuring consumers´ motivation, opportunity, and ability to process brand information from ads. Journal of Marketing, 55(4), 32 - 53. doi: 10.2307/1251955

Messer-Davidow, E. (2002). Discipling feminism: From social activism to academic discourse. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Mittal, B., & Lassar, W. (2000). Sexual liberalism as a determinant of consumer response to sex in advertising. Journal of Business and Psychology, 15(1), 111-27. doi: 10.1023/A:1007723003376

Morrinson, B., & Sherman, R. (1972). Who responds to sex in advertising?, Journal of Advertising Research, 12(2), 15 - 9.

Muehling, D. D. & McCann, M. (1993). Attitude toward the Ad: A Review.

Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 15(2), 25–58. doi: 10.1080/10641734.1993.10505002

Nelson, M., & Paek, H. (2005). Predicting cross-cultural differences in sexual advertising contents in a transnational woman´s magazine, Sex Roles, 53(5-6), 371 – 83. doi: 10.1007/s11199-005-6760-5

Nilaweera, U., & Wijetunga, D. (2005). The impact of cultural values of the effectiveness of television commercials with female sexual appeal: A Sri Lankan study. South Asian Journal of Management, 12(3), 7-20.

Offen, K. (1988). Defining feminism: A comparative historical approach. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 14(1), 119-157.

Paglia, C. (1992). Sex, art, and American culture. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

Patzer, G. (1980). A comparison of advertisement effects: Sexy female communicator vs non-sexy female communicator, en G. Patzer, Advances in consumer research, p.p. 359-64. San Francisco, CA: Association for Consumer Research.

Percy, L., & Rossiter, J. (1992). A model of brand awareness and brand

attitude advertising strategies. Psychology & Marketing, 9, 263-274.

doi: 10.1002/mar.4220090402

Pope, N.; Voges, K., & Brown, M. (2004). The effect of provocation in the form of mild erotica on attitude to the ad and corporate image. Journal of Advertising, 33(1), 69-82. doi:

Reichert, T. (2002). Sex in advertising research: A review of content, effects, and functions of sexual information in consumer advertising. Annual review of sex research, 13, 241-73. doi: 10.1080/10532528.2002.10559806

Reichert, T. (2003). The Erotic History of advertising. New York: Prometheus.

Reichert, T., & Alvaro, E. (2001). The effects of sexual information on ad and brand processing and brand processing and recall. International Journal of Advertising, 37(2), 168-198. doi: 10.1080/02650487.2017.1334996

Reichert, T., & Carpenter, C. (2004). Un update on sex in magazine advertising, 1983 to 2003. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(4), 823–837. doi: 10.1177/107769900408100407

Reichert, T., & Fosu, I. (2005). Women´s responses to sex in advertising: Examining the effects of women´s sexual self-schema on responses to sexual

content in commercials. Journal of Promotion Management, 11(2-3), 143-15. doi: 10.1300/J057v11n02_10

Reichert, T., & Lambiase, J. (2003). Sex in advertising: Perspectives on the erotic appeal. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Reichert, T., & Lambiase, J. (2012). Sex in advertising Perspectives on the Erotic Appeal. New York: Routledge.

Reichert, T.; Childers, C., & Reid, L. (2012). How sex in advertisins varies by product category: An analysis of three decades of visual sexual imagery in magazines advertising. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 33(1), 1-19. doi: 10.1080/10641734.2012.675566

Reichert, T.; Heckler, S., & Jackson, S. (2001). The effects of sexual social marketing appeals on cognitive processing and persuasion, Journal of Advertising, 30(1), 13-27. doi: 10.1080/00913367.2001.10673628

Reichert, T.; Lambiase, J.; Morgan, S., Zaviona, S., & Carstarphen, M. (1999). Cheesecake and Beefcake: No Matter How You Slice it, Sexual Explicitness in Advertising Continues to Increase. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 76(1), 7–20. doi: 10.1177/107769909907600102

Reichert, T.; LaTour, M., & Ford, J. (2011). The naked truth revealing the affinity for graphic sexual appeals in advertising. Journal of Advertising Research , 51, 436-48. doi: 10.2501/JAR-51-2-436-448

Reichert, T.; LaTour, M., & Kim, J. (2007). Assessing the influence of gender and sexual self-schema on affective response to sexual content in advertising. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 29(2), 63-77. doi: 10.1080/10641734.2007.10505217

Reidenbach, R., & Robin, D. (1990). Toward the development of a multidimensional scale for improving evaluations of business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(8), 639-53. doi: 10.1007/BF00383391

Sawang, S. (2010). Sex Appeal in advertising: What Consumers Think. Journal of Promotion Management. 16(1-2), 167-187. doi: 10.1080/10496490903578832

Sciglimpaglia, D., Belch, M., & Cain, R. (1979). Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 6). (W. Wilkie, Ed.) Miami, Florida: Association for Consumer Research.

Sengupta, J., & Dahl, D. (2008). Gender-related reactions to gratuitous sex

appeals in advertising. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 18, 62-78.

doi: 10.1016/j.jcps.2007.10.010

Severn, J.; Belch, G., & Belch, M. (1990). The effects of sexual and non-sexual advertising appeals and information level on cognitive processing

and communication effectiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19(1), 14-22.


Smith, G., & Engel, R. (1968). Influence of a Female Model on Perceived Characteristics of an Automobile. Proceedings of the 76th American Psychological Association Annual Convention, (p. 681-682).

Snyder, M., & Rothbarth, M. (1971). Communicator Attractiveness and Opinion Change. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 3(4), 377-387. doi: 10.1037/h0082280

So, S. (1996). Does sex sell in Chinese society? An empirical study. Brain and language, 79-94.

Soley, L., & Reid, L. (1988). Taking it off: Are models in magazine ads wearing

less? Journalism ans Mass Communication Quarterly, 65(4), 960 - 6.

doi: 10.1177/107769908806500419

Spark, J., & Lang, A. (2015). Mechanisms underlying the effects of sexy and humorous content in advertisements. Communication Monographs, 82(1), 134-162. doi: 10.1080/03637751.2014.976236

Williams, J., & Jovanic, J. (2015). Third wave feminism and emerging adult

sexuality: Friends with Benefits Relationships. Sexuality and Culture, 19(1), 157-71. doi: 10.1007/s12119-014-9252-3

Yang, R.; Ogle, J., & Hyllegard, K. (2010). The impact of message appeal and message source on Gen Y consumers´ attitudes and purchase intentions toward American apparel. Journal of Marketing Communications, 16(4), 203-224. doi: 10.1080/13527260902863221

Zimmerman, A., & Dahlberg, J. (2008). The sexual objectification of women in advertising: A contemporary cultural perspective. Journal of Advertising Research, 48(1), 71-9. doi: 10.2501/S0021849908080094


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.
Logo de la Asociación de Revistas Culturales de España Logo de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid Logo de la Universidad de la Frontera Logo de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Información Logo del Departamento de Comunicación Audiovisual y Publicidad II Logo de Concilium Logo del SEECI